美國七月份就業數據連續三個月超過預期

新聞摘要:白宮8月7日公佈勞工統計局報告,七月份就業情況超過預期,三個月來連續增長達到930萬。失業率持續下降。美國經濟呈復蘇跡象。

Jobs Numbers in July Beat Expectations for Third Straight Month

7月份的就業數據連續第三個月超過預期

August 7, 2020

2020年8月7日

Another 1.8 million jobs were added in July, bringing the 3-month total to 9.3 million.

2020年7月新增就業180萬, 3個月來的總就業數據增加到930萬。

American workers and businesses continue to prove that they are fighting for the great American comeback. The United States economy has now added 9.3 million new jobs in the past 3 months, beating market expectations by a combined 12 million. The Bureau of Labor Statistics reported adding another 1.8 million new jobs in July, exceeding expectations for the third straight month. Down from a high of 14.7 percent just three months prior, the official unemployment rate reached 10.2 percent in July.

美國工人和企業繼續證明他們正在為美國重新偉大而戰。過去的三個月美國增加了930萬個新工作崗位,總共增加1200萬個工作崗位,超過市場預期。勞工統計局報告稱,7月份又增加了180萬個新工作崗位,連續第三個月超出預期。官方失業率從3個月前的14.7%高位回落,7月降到10.2%。

Historically less-advantaged groups have experienced large gains. Following massive losses during the pandemic lockdown, Black Americans have recorded nearly a million new jobs since April, and their unemployment rate fell by 0.8 percentage points in July alone. Hispanic Americans and Asian Americans also saw substantial unemployment rate declines in July, decreasing 1.6 percentage points to 12.9 percent and 1.8 percentage points to 12.0 percent, respectively. The unemployment rate fell by 1.2 percentage points for those without a high school education, and by 1.3 percentage points for those with only a high school education.

歷史上處境較差的群體得到巨大的收穫。在大流行性封鎖造成的巨額損失之後,美國黑人自四月以來已登記近100萬個新工作,其失業率僅在7月份就下降了0.8個百分點。 西班牙裔美國人和亞裔美國人在7月份的失業率也大幅下降,分別下降1.6個百分點至12.9%和1.8個百分點至12.0%。無高中文憑的失業率下降了1.2個百分點,僅有高中文憑的失業率下降了1.3個百分點。

The industries with the deepest job losses have experienced the strongest recoveries. The leisure and hospitality and retail trade industries, which traditionally employ low-wage workers, added a combined 850,000 jobs in July. The leisure and hospitality industry alone added nearly 4 million jobs since April, making up close to half of the jobs the industry lost in the two months prior (see figure below).

失業最嚴重的行業復蘇最為強勁。傳統上雇用低薪工人的休閒、酒店和零售貿易行業在7月共增加了850,000個工作崗位。 自四月以來,僅休閒和酒店業就增加了近400萬個工作,佔該行業在前兩個月失去的工作的近一半(見下圖)。

There is still much work to be done to return to the strong Trump Economy that prevailed before COVID-19 struck. Just over one in 10 Americans in the labor force remain unemployed, slightly above the peak reached during the Great Recession. But the progress made over the past three months demonstrates that a rapid recovery is possible.

要恢復COVID-19襲擊之前強大的「川普經濟」,仍有很多工作要做。超過十分之一的美國人處於失業狀態,略高於大蕭條時期的峰值。但過去三個月的進展表明,有可能實現經濟的快速恢復。

The official unemployment rate fell by 0.9 percentage points in July, and by 4.5 percentage points over the past 3 months. As CEA has previously reported, these declines likely understate the actual reductions in the unemployment rate. This is a result of a BLS-acknowledged issue in which workers who were classified as 「employed」 should instead have been classified as 「unemployed on temporary layoff.」 CEA estimates that the unemployment rate would have been 0.9 percentage points higher at 11.1 percent if workers incorrectly categorized as 「employed but not at work for other reasons」 were instead counted as unemployed. This has fallen by 8.5 percentage points since April, more than the 4.5 percentage point drop in the official rate.

7月份的官方失業率下降了0.9%,過去三個月官方失業率下降了4.5%。如CEA(經濟顧問委員會)之前的報道,這可能低估了失業率的真實下降情況。這是BLS(勞工統計局)承認的,被歸類為「就業」的工人應改為「臨時裁員的失業者」。 CEA估計,如果將錯誤歸類為「已就業但由於其它原因而不工作」的工人按「失業」進行統計,失業率將(較官方統計數字為10.2%)上升0.9%,達到11.1%。那麼自四月以來,失業率下降了8.5%,超過4.5%的官方失業率。

The COVID-19-induced shutdown took an unprecedented toll on the economy. Fortunately, the recovery has been unprecedented, as well. After employment reached a trough in 2010 following the Great Recession, it took well over 4 years to add 9 million jobs. It has now taken just three months to add 9.3 million jobs during the COVID-19 economic recovery. Job growth has shattered expectations by a combined 12 million jobs over the past three months.

COVID-19導致的停工給經濟造成了前所未有的損失。 幸運的是,復蘇也是前所未有的。 在經濟大蕭條之後,就業在2010達到低谷,花了4年多的時間增加了900萬個工作崗位。現在COVID-19經濟復蘇期間,僅三個月就增加了930萬個工作崗位。總共增加了1200萬個工作崗位,過去三個月就業增長超過預期。

These are encouraging signs for the great American comeback.

這是偉大美國回歸的振奮人心的跡象。

閱讀白宮原文

翻譯: 【Connor54】 校對:【Melody太陽的旋律】編輯:【Michelle】

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Isaiah4031

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