保護美國龍蝦產業備忘錄

PRESIDENTIAL MEMORANDA

總統備忘錄

Memorandum on Protecting the United States Lobster Industry

保護美國龍蝦產業備忘錄

LAND & AGRICULTURE

國土與農業

Issued on: June 24, 2020

發佈日期:2020年6月24日

MEMORANDUM FOR THE SECRETARY OF AGRICULTURE
THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE
THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE

農業部長
商務部部長
美國貿易代表
備忘錄

SUBJECT: Protecting the United States Lobster Industry

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, it is hereby ordered as follows:

主題:保護美國龍蝦產業

根據美利堅合眾國憲法和法律賦予我的總統權力,現命令如下:

Section 1.  Policy.  On May 22, 2018, the United States Trade Representative (Trade Representative) concluded an investigation under section 301 of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended (19 U.S.C. 2411), finding that China had engaged in multiple unreasonable and discriminatory trade practices that had harmed American intellectual property rights, innovation, and technology development.  In response to China’s unfair and unreasonable conduct, the United States imposed tariffs on several categories of Chinese products.

Rather than reform its practices, China responded to the Trade Representative’s findings with unjust retaliatory tariffs designed strategically to inflict financial harm on America’s farmers, fishermen, and workers in other industries.

第1節. 政策。 2018年5月22日,美國貿易代表(以下簡稱貿易代表)依據1974年《貿易法》修訂版第301節(19 U.S.C. 2411)結束了調查,認定中國從事了多種不合理且具有歧視性的貿易慣例,損害了美國的智慧財產權,創新和技術發展。為了回應中國的不公平和不合理行為,美國對幾類中國產品徵收了關稅。中國未改革其原有的貿易慣例,而是對貿易代表的調查結果作出了不公正的報復性關稅,旨在對美國的農民,漁民和其他行業的工人造成經濟損失。

My Administration has forcefully addressed China’s unfair assault on American producers.  Among other measures, I directed the Secretary of Agriculture to deliver a comprehensive trade aid package to American farmers.  He did so, providing more than 14 billion dollars in direct payments to American farmers under the authority of the Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) Charter Act.

本屆政府已強有力地解決了中國對美國生產者不公平的攻擊。除其他措施外,我指示了農業部長向美國農民提供全面的貿易援助。他依據《商品信貸公司(CCC)憲章法》的授權向美國農民提供了超過140億美元的直接支付。

China’s retaliatory assault on the American lobster industry was particularly aggressive.  On July 6, 2018, China imposed retaliatory 25 percent tariffs on American lobster.  On September 1, 2019, China raised those retaliatory tariffs to 35 percent.  On February 14, 2020, China reduced its punitive lobster tariffs to 30 percent.  When those retaliatory tariffs are added to China’s prevailing Most Favored Nation tariffs of 5 percent and 7 percent, depending on the species of lobster, American lobsters currently face tariffs of either 35 percent or 37 percent.

中國對美國龍蝦產業的報復性攻擊特別激進。 2018年7月6日,中國對美國龍蝦徵收了25%的報復性關稅。 2019年9月1日,中國將這些報復性關稅提高到35%。 2020年2月14日,中國將龍蝦的懲罰性關稅降低至30%。這些報復性關稅再加上中國現行的最惠國關稅的5%和7%時(取決於龍蝦的種類),美國龍蝦目前面臨的關稅是35%或37%。

On January 15, 2020, I signed the landmark Economic and Trade Agreement Between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of the People’s Republic of China (“Phase One Agreement”).  The Phase One Agreement requires important structural reforms from China related to issues such as intellectual property theft, forced technology transfer, and exchange rate manipulation.  As part of the Phase One Agreement, China made binding commitments to purchase large quantities of United States manufactured goods, agricultural products, and services.  Seafood, including lobsters, is one of the agricultural products China agreed to purchase.  To help fulfill this purchase commitment, China has made available exclusions from its retaliatory tariffs for imports of United States lobster.

2020年1月15日,我簽署了具有里程碑意義的《美國政府與中華人民共和國政府之間的經貿協定》(以下簡稱《第一階段協定》)。 《第一階段協定》要求中國進行重大的結構性改革,涉及智慧財產權盜竊,強迫技術轉讓和匯率操縱等問題。作為《第一階段協定》的一部分,中國做出了具有約束力的承諾,即購買大量美國製造產品,農產品和服務。海鮮,包括龍蝦,是中國同意購買的農產品之一。為幫助履行這一購買承諾,中國已將對美國龍蝦的進口排除在報復性關稅外。

At this time, it remains unclear to what extent China’s exclusions from its retaliatory tariffs will result in increased exports of United States lobster.  Such exports are particularly important because exports to the European Union, another large market for United States lobster, appear to have been significantly and negatively affected by the recent implementation of the Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA) between Canada and the European Union.

目前,尚不清楚究竟何種程度上的中國報復性關稅白名單才會導致美國龍蝦出口增加。此類出口特別重要,因為美國龍蝦的另一個出口大市場歐盟,似乎受到加拿大和歐盟之間最近執行的《全面經濟和貿易協定》(CETA)的嚴重不利影響。

The lobster industry is a crown jewel of America’s seafood industry.  From 2015 to 2018, American lobster was the most valuable single seafood species harvested in the United States, with Maine accounting for approximately 80 percent of that value each year.  It is, therefore, the policy of my Administration to mitigate the effects of unfair retaliatory trade practices on this important industry.

龍蝦行業是美國海鮮行業的皇冠上的明珠。從2015年到2018年,龍蝦是美國收穫的最有價值的單一海產品種,緬因州每年約占該值的80%。因此,本屆政府的政策是減輕不公平報復性貿易慣例對該重要行業的影響。

Sec. 2.  Protecting the United States Lobster Industry.  (a)  The Secretary of Agriculture shall, within 60 days of the date of this memorandum, consider taking appropriate action, to the extent permitted by applicable law, to provide assistance to fishermen and producers in the United States lobster industry that continue to be harmed by China’s retaliatory tariffs.

(b)  The Secretary of Agriculture shall also consider including, to the extent permitted by applicable law, the United States lobster industry and other segments of the United States seafood industry in any future assistance provided to mitigate the effects of China’s retaliatory trade practices.

第2節.保護美國龍蝦產業。 (a)農業部長應在本備忘錄之日起60天內,考慮在適用法律允許的範圍內採取適當行動,為持續受到中國報復性關稅損害的美國龍蝦產業的漁民和生產者提供幫助。

(b)農業部長還應考慮在適用法律允許的範圍內,針對包括美國龍蝦行業和美國海鮮行業的其他部分提供的任何未來所需援助,來減輕中國報復性貿易慣例的影響。

Sec. 3.  Reciprocal Tariffs.  (a)  The Trade Representative shall, beginning August 15, 2020, submit a monthly report to the President detailing:

(i)   China’s progress in meeting its purchase commitments under the Phase One Agreement with respect to United States seafood; and

(ii)  the value of monthly Maine and other United States lobster exports to China, beginning with China’s imports for June 2020.

(b)  In the event that the Trade Representative determines that China is not meeting its purchase commitments under the Phase One Agreement with respect to seafood, the Trade Representative shall consider, to the extent permitted by law, taking all appropriate action to impose reciprocal retaliatory tariffs on seafood exports from China.

第3節.互惠關稅。 (a)貿易代表應于2020年8月15日開始向總統提交每月報告,詳細說明:

(i)中國在履行《第一階段協定》中關於美國海產品的購買承諾方面的進展;和

(ii)中國從2020年6月開始進口的,緬因州和美國其他龍蝦的月度額度。

(b)如果貿易代表確定中國未能履行其在《第一階段協定》中關於海產品的購買承諾,則貿易代表應在法律允許的範圍內考慮採取一切適當行動,針對中國出口的海產品,採取對等報復性措施徵收關稅。

Sec. 4.  Addressing Negative Effects of the CETA between Canada and the European Union on the United States Lobster Industry.  Pursuant to section 1332(g) of title 19, United States Code, and section 5-301 of Executive Order 12661 of December 27, 1988 (Implementing the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988 and Related International Trade Matters), the Trade Representative shall request that the United States International Trade Commission (USITC) provide a report that details any negative effects of the CETA on the United States lobster industry.  The Trade Representative shall submit such report to the President.  The Trade Representative, in consultation with the Secretary of Agriculture and Secretary of Commerce, shall recommend appropriate actions that may be taken to minimize or eliminate any negative effects identified in the USITC report.

第4節.解決加拿大和歐盟之間的CETA對美國龍蝦產業的負面影響。依據美國法典第19编第1332(g)節和1988年12月27日第12661号行政命令第5-301節(實施1988年《綜合貿易和競爭法》及相關國際貿易事項),貿易代表應要求美國國際貿易委員會(USITC)提供一份報告,詳細說明CETA對美國龍蝦產業的所有負面影響。貿易代表應將該報告提交總統。貿易代表應與農業部長和商務部長協商後,推薦出可採取適當措施,以最大程度地減少或消除USITC報告中指出的負面影響。

Sec. 5.  General Provisions.  (a)  Nothing in this memorandum shall be construed to impair or otherwise affect:

(i)   the authority granted by law to an executive department or agency, or the head thereof; or

(ii)  the functions of the Director of the Office of Management and Budget relating to budgetary, administrative, or legislative proposals.

(b)  This memorandum shall be implemented consistent with applicable law and subject to the availability of appropriations.

(c)  This memorandum is not intended to, and does not, create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or in equity by any party against the United States, its departments, agencies, or entities, its officers, employees, or agents, or any other person.

第5節.一般規定。(a)本備忘錄中的任何內容均不得用於為損害或以其他方式影響做解釋:

(i)法律授予執行部門或機構或其負責人的權力;或者

(ii)管理和預算辦公室主任與預算、行政或立法提案有關的職能。

(b)本備忘錄應根據適用法律執行,並視撥款情況而定。

(c)本備忘錄無意也不會創造任何權利或利益,無論是實體還是程式上的任何權利或利益,任何一方均可針對美國,其部門、機關或實體,其高級職員、雇員、代理商或任何其他人在法律上或衡平法下執行。

DONALD J. TRUMP

The White House

唐納德·川普

白宮

白宮連結:Memorandum on Protecting the United States Lobster Industry

翻譯:【Prof. Bacteriophage】校對:【V%】

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