包括H-1B的多種非移民簽證從6月24日起被暫停入境

新聞簡述:川普政府宣布從6月24日凌晨12:01起任何以H-1B或H-2B簽證、J簽證、L簽證尋求入境美國的外國人以及陪同或跟隨該外國人入境的所有外國人被暫停入境。以防止非移民簽證對美國工人的就業構成的威脅。

Proclamation Suspending Entry of Aliens Who Present a Risk to the U.S. Labor Market Following the Coronavirus Outbreak

暫停冠狀病毒爆發後對美國勞動力市場構成風險的外國人入境的公告

Issued on: June 22, 2020

頒布日期:2020年6月22日

The 2019 Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) has significantly disrupted Americans’ livelihoods. Since March 2020, United States businesses and their workers have faced extensive disruptions while undertaking certain public health measures necessary to flatten the curve of COVID-19 and reduce the spread of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. The overall unemployment rate in the United States nearly quadrupled between February and May of 2020 — producing some of the most extreme unemployment ever recorded by the Bureau of Labor Statistics. While the May rate of 13.3 percent reflects a marked decline from April, millions of Americans remain out of work.

2019年新型冠狀病毒(COVID-19)嚴重地破壞了美國人的生計。自2020年3月以來,美國企業及其工人面臨著廣泛的破壞,同時採取了某些必要的公共衛生措施,以使COVID-19曲線變平,並減少SARS-CoV-2(引起COVID-19的病毒)的傳播。在2020年2月至5月期間,美國的總體失業率幾乎翻了兩番,這是勞工統計局有史以來記錄的最極端的失業率。雖然5月份的13.3%的失業率跟4月份相比明顯下降,但仍有數百萬美國人失業。

In Proclamation 10014 of April 22, 2020 (Suspension of Entry of Immigrants Who Present a Risk to the United States Labor Market During the Economic Recovery Following the 2019 Novel Coronavirus Outbreak), I determined that, without intervention, the United States faces a potentially protracted economic recovery with persistently high unemployment if labor supply outpaces labor demand. Consequently, I suspended, for a period of 60 days, the entry of aliens as immigrants, subject to certain exceptions. As I noted, lawful permanent residents, once admitted pursuant to immigrant visas, are granted “open-market” employment authorization documents, allowing them immediate eligibility to compete for almost any job, in any sector of the economy. Given that 60 days is an insufficient time period for the United States labor market, still stalled with partial social distancing measures, to rebalance, and given the lack of sufficient alternative means to protect unemployed Americans from the th reat of competition for scarce jobs from new lawful permanent residents, the considerations present in Proclamation 10014 remain.

在2020年4月22日的第10014號公告(在2019年新型冠狀病毒爆發後的經濟復甦期間,暫停對美國勞動力市場構成風險的移民入境)中,我確定,如果不進行干預,如果勞動力供大於求,伴隨著失業率的居高不下,美國將面臨潛在的長期經濟復甦風險。因此,除某些例外情況外,我暫停了外國人作為移民入境,為期60天。正如我所指出的那樣,合法的永久居民一旦獲得移民簽證的批准入境,就會獲得 “公開市場 “的就業授權文件,使他們立即有資格在任何經濟領域競爭幾乎任何工作。鑑於60天的時間不足以讓美國勞動力市場重新平衡,而美國勞動力市場仍因部分社會隔離措施而停滯不前,而且缺乏足夠的替代手段來保護失業的美國人免受新的合法永久居民競爭稀缺工作的威脅,第10014號公告中的考慮因素仍然存在。

In addition, pursuant to Proclamation 10014, the Secretary of Labor and the Secretary of Homeland Security reviewed nonimmigrant programs and found that the present admission of workers within several nonimmigrant visa categories also poses a risk of displacing and disadvantaging United States workers during the current recovery.

此外,根據第10014號公告,勞工部部長和國土安全部部長對非移民計劃進行了審查,發現目前在幾個非移民簽證類別中接納工人的做法,也有可能在目前的經濟復甦期間頂替美國工人並使美國工人處於不利地位。

American workers compete against foreign nationals for jobs in every sector of our economy, including against millions of aliens who enter the United States to perform temporary work. Temporary workers are often accompanied by their spouses and children, many of whom also compete against American workers. Under ordinary circumstances, properly administered temporary worker programs can provide benefits to the economy. But under the extraordinary circumstances of the economic contraction resulting from the COVID-19 outbreak, certain nonimmigrant visa programs authorizing such employment pose an unusual threat to the employment of American workers .

美國工人在我國每一個經濟領域與外國國民競爭工作,包括與數百萬進入美國從事臨時工作的外國人競爭。臨時工往往由其配偶和子女陪同,其中許多人也與美國工人競爭。在一般情況下,管理得當的臨時工計劃可以為經濟帶來好處。但是,在因COVID-19疫情爆發而造成經濟萎縮的特殊情況下,某些授權此類就業的非移民簽證方案對美國工人的就業構成了不尋常的威脅。

For example, between February and April of 2020, more than 17 million United States jobs were lost in industries in which employers are seeking to fill worker positions tied to H-2B nonimmigrant visas. During this same period, more than 20 million United States workers lost their jobs in key industries where employers are currently requesting H-1B and L workers to fill positions. Also, the May unemployment rate for young Americans, who compete with certain J nonimmigrant visa applicants, has been particularly high — 29.9 percent for 16 19 year olds, and 23.2 percent for the 20-24 year old group. The entry of additional workers through the H-1B, H-2B, J, and L nonimmigrant visa programs, therefore, presents a significant threat to employment opportunities for Americans affected by the extraordinary economic disruptions caused by the COVID-19 outbreak.

例如,在2020年2月至4月期間,在雇主尋求填補與H-2B非移民簽證掛鉤的工人職位的行業中,美國有超過1700萬個工作崗位流失。同期,在雇主目前要求H-1B和L類簽證的工人填補職位的關鍵行業中,有超過2000萬美國工人失去了工作。另外,與某些J類非移民簽證申請者競爭的美國年輕人5月份的失業率也特別高,16-19歲的年輕人失業率為29.9%,20-24歲群體失業率為23.2%。因此,更多的通過H-1B、H-2B、J和L非移民簽證計劃入境的工人,就對受COVID-19爆發造成的異常經濟混亂影響的美國人的就業機會構成了重大威脅。

As I described in Proclamation 10014, excess labor supply is particularly harmful to workers at the margin between employment and unemployment — those who are typically “last in” during an economic expansion and “first out” during an economic contraction. In recent years, these workers have been disproportionately represented by historically disadvantaged groups, including African Americans and other minorities, those without a college degree, and Americans with disabilities.

正如我在第10014號公告中所描述的那樣,過剩的勞動力供應對處於就業和失業之間的工人特別有害,這些人通常在經濟擴張期間是“最後一個進入”,在經濟收縮期間是“第一個離開”。近年來,這些工人在歷史上處於不利地位的群體中的比例過高,包括非裔美國人和其他少數族裔、沒有大學學歷的人和美國殘疾人。

In the administration of our Nation’s immigration system, we must remain mindful of the impact of foreign workers on the United States labor market, particularly in the current extraordinary environment of high domestic unemployment and depressed demand for labor. Historically, when recovering from economic shocks that cause significant contractions in productivity, recoveries in employment lag behind improvements in economic activity. This predictive outcome demonstrates that, assuming the conclusion of the economic contraction, the United States economy will likely require several months to return to pre-contraction economic output, and additional months to restore stable labor demand. In light of the above, I have determined that the entry, through December 31, 2020, of certain aliens as immigrants and nonimmigrants would be detrimental to the interests of the United States.

在管理我國的移民制度時,我們必須繼續注意外國工人對美國勞動力市場的影響,特別是在目前國內高失業率和勞動力需求低迷的特殊環境下。從歷史上看,當從導致生產力大幅收縮的經濟衝擊中恢復時,就業的恢復滯後於經濟活動的改善。這一預測結果表明,假設經濟收縮結束,美國經濟可能需要幾個月的時間才能恢復到收縮前的經濟產出,還需要幾個月的時間才能恢復穩定的勞動力需求。鑑於上述情況,我認定,直至2020年12月31日,某些外國人以移民和非移民身份入境將損害美國的利益。

NOW, THEREFORE, I, DONALD J. TRUMP, President of the United States, by the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including sections 212(f) and 215(a) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) (8 USC 1182(f) and 1185(a)) and section 301 of title 3, United States Code, hereby find that the entry into the United States of persons described in section 1 of Proclamation 10014, except as provided in section 2 of Proclamation 10014, and persons described in section 2 of this proclamation, except as provided for in section 3 of this proclamation, would be detrimental to the interests of the United States, and that their entry should be subject to certain restrictions, limitations, and exceptions. I therefore hereby proclaim the following:

因此,我,美國總統唐納德·川普,根據《憲法》和美利堅合眾國法律,包括《移民與國籍法》第212(f)和215(a)條(8 USC1182(f)和1185(a) ),和《美國法典》第3卷第301條賦予我的權力,特此認定,除第10014號公告第2條規定外,第10014號公告第1條所述人員進入美國;以及除本公告第3條規定外,本公告第2條所述人員進入美國將損害美國的利益,他們的入境應受到一定的限制、約束和例外情況。因此,我特此宣佈如下:

Section 1.  Continuation of Proclamation 10014.  (a)  Section 4 of Proclamation 10014 is amended to read as follows:

第1條. 繼續執行第10014號公告。 (a) 第10014號公告第4條修訂如下:

 “Sec. 4. Termination. This proclamation shall expire on December 31, 2020, and may be continued as necessary. Within 30 days of June 24, 2020, and every 60 days thereafter while this proclamation is in effect, the Secretary of Homeland Security shall, in consultation with the Secretary of State and the Secretary of Labor, recommend any modifications as may be necessary.”

“第4條。終止。本公告將於2020年12月31日到期,必要時可繼續執行。在2020年6月24日之後的30天內,以及此後本公告生效期間每60天,國土安全部部長應與國務卿和勞工部部長協商,提出任何必要的修改建議。”

(b) This section shall be effective immediately.

(b) 本條應立即生效。

Sec. 2. Suspension and Limitation on Entry. The entry into the United States of any alien seeking entry pursuant to any of the following nonimmigrant visas is hereby suspended and limited, subject to section 3 of this proclamation:

第2條. 暫停和限制入境。根據本公告第3條的規定,暫停和限制以下非移民簽證入境的任何外國人進入美國:

an H-1B or H-2B visa, and any alien accompanying or following to join such alien;

(a) H-1B或H-2B簽證,以及陪同或跟隨加入該外國人的任何外國人;

a J visa, to the extent the alien is participating in an intern, trainee, teacher, camp counselor, au pair, or summer work travel program, and any alien accompanying or following to join such alien; and

(b) J簽證,條件是該外國人正在參加實習生、培訓生、教師、營地輔導員、互惠生或暑期工作旅行方案,以及陪同或跟隨參加該外國人的任何外國人;以及

(c) an L visa, and any alien accompanying or following to join such alien.

(c) L簽證,以及陪同或跟隨加入該外國人的任何外國人。

Sec. 3. Scope of Suspension and Limitation on Entry. (a) The suspension and limitation on entry pursuant to section 2 of this proclamation shall apply only to any alien who:

第3條。暫停和限制入境的範圍。 (a) 根據本公告第2條的規定,暫停和限制入境只適用於以下外國人:

(i) is outside the United States on the effective date of this proclamation;

(i) 在本公告生效之日在美國境外。

(ii) does not have a nonimmigrant visa that is valid on the effective date of this proclamation; and

(ii) 在本公告生效之日沒有有效的非移民簽證;以及

(iii) does not have an official travel document other than a visa (such as a transportation letter, an appropriate boarding foil, or an advance parole document) that is valid on the effective date of this proclamation or issued on any date thereafter that permits him or her to travel to the United States and seek entry or admission.

(iii) 除簽證(如運輸函、適當的登機箔或提前假釋文件)外,沒有在本公告生效之日或其後任何日期簽發的允許其前往美國並尋求入境或接納的正式旅行證件;

(b) The suspension and limitation on entry pursuant to section 2 of this proclamation shall not apply to:

(b) 本公告第2條規定的暫停和限制入境不適用於:

(i) any lawful permanent resident of the United States;

(i) 任何合法的美國永久居民;

 (ii) any alien who is the spouse or child, as defined in section 101(b)(1) of the INA (8 U.S.C. 1101(b)(1)), of a United States citizen;

(ii)《移民與國籍法》(8 U.S.C.1101(b)(1))第101(b)(1) 條所界定的美國公民的配偶或子女的任何外國人。

(iii) any alien seeking to enter the United States to provide temporary labor or services essential to the United States food supply chain; and

(iii) 任何尋求進入美國以提供對美國食品供應鏈至關重要的臨時勞工或服務的外國人;以及

(iv) any alien whose entry would be in the national interest as determined by the Secretary of State, the Secretary of Homeland Security, or their respective designees.

(iv) 國務卿、國土安全部部長或他們各自指定的人認定其入境符合國家利益的任何外國人;

Sec. 4.  Implementation and Enforcement.  (a)  The consular officer shall determine, in his or her discretion, whether a nonimmigrant has established his or her eligibility for an exception in section 3(b) of this proclamation.  The Secretary of State shall implement this proclamation as it applies to visas pursuant to such procedures as the Secretary of State, in consultation with the Secretary of Homeland Security and the Secretary of Labor, may establish in the Secretary of State’s discretion.  The Secretary of Homeland Security shall implement this proclamation as it applies to the entry of aliens pursuant to such procedures as the Secretary of Homeland Security, in consultation with the Secretary of State, may establish in the Secretary of Homeland Security’s discretion.

第4條。實施和執行。 (a) 領事官員應酌情確定非移民人士是否已符合本公告第3(b)節的例外情況。當適用於簽證程序時,國務卿應根據國務卿與國土安全部部長和勞工部部長協商後酌情制定的程序,來執行本公告。當適用外國人的入境程序時,國土安全部部長應根據國土安全部部長與國務卿協商後,由國土安全部部長酌情制定的程序,執行本公告。

(i) The Secretary of State, the Secretary of Labor, and the Secretary of Homeland Security shall establish standards to define categories of aliens covered by section 3(b)(iv) of this proclamation, including those that: are critical to the defense , law enforcement, diplomacy, or national security of the United States; are involved with the provision of medical care to individuals who have contracted COVID-19 and are currently hospitalized; are involved with the provision of medical research at United States facilities to help the United States combat COVID-19; or are necessary to facilitate the immediate and continued economic recovery of the United States. The Secretary of State and the Secretary of Homeland Security shall exercise the authority under section 3(b)(iv) of this proclamation and section 2(b)(iv) of Proclamation 10014 to exempt alien children who would as a result of the suspension in section 2 of this proclamation or the suspension in section 1 of Proclamation 10014 age out of eligibility for a visa.

(i) 國務卿、勞工部長和國土安全部長應制定標準,界定本公告第3(b) (iv)條所涵蓋的外國人類別,包括:對美國的國防、執法、外交或國家安全至關重要;參與向感染COVID-19並正在住院的個人提供醫療服務;參與在美國設施的醫療研究,以幫助美國對抗COVID-19;或為促進美國立即和持續的經濟復甦所必需。國務卿和國土安全部部長應根據本公告第3(b) (iv)條和第10014號公告第2(b) (iv)條的規定行使權力,豁免因本公告第2條暫停或第10014號公告第1條暫停而喪失簽證資格的外國兒童。

(ii) Aliens covered by section 3(b)(iv) of this proclamation, under the standards established in section 4(a)(i) of this proclamation, shall be identified by the Secretary of State, the Secretary of Homeland Security, or their respective designees, in his or her sole discretion.

(ii) 根據本公告第4(a) (i)條規定的標準,本公告第3(b) (iv)條所涵蓋的外國人,應由國務卿、國土安全部部長或他們各自指定的人自行決定確認。

(b) An alien who circumvents the application of this proclamation through fraud, willful misrepresentation of a material fact, or illegal entry shall be a priority for removal by the Department of Homeland Security.

(b) 通過欺詐、故意歪曲重要事實或非法入境等方式規避執行本公告的外國人,應被國土安全部首先驅逐。

(c) Nothing in this proclamation shall be construed to limit the ability of an individual to seek asylum, refugee status, withholding of removal, or protection under the Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, consistent with the laws of the United States.

(c) 本公告的任何內容均不得解釋為,按照美國法律或依聯合國《禁止酷刑和其他殘忍、不人道或有辱人格的待遇或處罰公約》限制個人尋求庇護、難民地位、暫緩驅逐,尋求保護。

Sec. 5. Additional Measures. (a) The Secretary of Health and Human Services, through the Director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, shall, as necessary, provide guidance to the Secretary of State and the Secretary of Homeland Security for implementing measures that could reduce the risk that aliens seeking admission or entry to the United States may introduce, transmit, or spread SARS-CoV-2 within the United States.

第5條。額外措施。 (a) 衛生和公眾服務部部長應在必要時通過疾病控制和預防中心主任向國務卿和國土安全部部長提供指導,以便採取措施,減少尋求進入或進入美國的外國人在美國境內帶來、傳播或擴散SARS-CoV-2的風險。

(b) The Secretary of Labor shall, in consultation with the Secretary of Homeland Security, as soon as practicable, and consistent with applicable law, consider promulgating regulations or take other appropriate action to ensure that the presence in the United States of aliens who have been admitted or otherwise provided a benefit, or who are seeking admission or a benefit, pursuant to an EB-2 or EB-3 immigrant visa or an H-1B nonimmigrant visa does not disadvantage United States workers in violation of section 212(a) (5)(A) or (n)(1) of the INA (8 USC 1182(a)(5)(A) or (n)(1)). The Secretary of Labor shall also undertake, as appropriate, investigations pursuant to section 212(n)(2)(G)(i) of the INA (8 USC 1182(n)(2)(G)(i)).

(b) 勞工部長應盡快與國土安全部部長協商,在符合適用法律的情況下,考慮頒布條例或採取其他適當行動,以確保根據EB-2或EB-3移民簽證或H-1B非移民簽證已獲准入境或以其他方式獲得福利,或正在尋求入境或獲得福利的外國人在美國的存在不會違反《移民與國籍法》(8 USC 1182(a)(5)(A) 或(n) (1))第212(a)(5)(A)或(n)(1)條,使美國工人處於不利地位。勞工部長也應酌情根據《移民與國籍法》(8 U.S.C. 1182(n)(2)(G)(i))第212(n)(2)(G)(i)條進行調查。

(c)  The Secretary of Homeland Security shall:

(c) 國土安全部長應:

(i) take appropriate action, consistent with applicable law, in coordination with the Secretary of State, to provide that an alien should not be eligible to apply for a visa or for admission or entry into the United States or other benefit until such alien has been registered with biographical and biometric information, including but not limited to photographs, signatures, and fingerprints;

(i) 與國務卿協調,在符合適用法律的情況下,採取適當行動,規定外國人在登記了包括但不限於照片、簽名和指紋在內的個人履歷和生物識別信息之前,沒有資格申請簽證、入境或進入美國或其他福利;

(ii) take appropriate and necessary steps, consistent with applicable law, to prevent certain aliens who have final orders of removal; who are inadmissible or deportable from the United States; or who have been arrested for, charged with, or convicted of a criminal offense in the United States, from obtaining eligibility to work in the United States; and

(ii) 在符合適用法律的情況下,採取適當和必要的步驟,防止某些已被下達最後驅離令的外國人、不可受理或可從美國驅逐出境的人、或在美國因刑事犯罪而被逮捕、指控或定罪的外國人獲得在美國工作的資格;以及

(iii) as soon as practicable, and consistent with applicable law, consider promulgating regulations or take other appropriate action regarding the efficient allocation of visas pursuant to section 214(g)(3) of the INA (8 USC 1184(g)(3 )) and ensuring that the presence in the United States of H-1B nonimmigrants does not disadvantage United States workers.

(iii) 在符合適用法律的情況下,在實際可行的情況下盡快考慮頒布條例或採取其他適當行動,根據《移民與國籍法》(8 USC1184(g)(3))第214(g) (3)條有效地分配簽證,並確保H-1B非移民在美國的存在不會對美國工人不利;

Sec. 6. Termination. This proclamation shall expire on December 31, 2020, and may be continued as necessary. Within 30 days of the effective date of this proclamation and every 60 days thereafter while this proclamation is in effect, the Secretary of Homeland Security shall, in consultation with the Secretary of State and the Secretary of Labor, recommend any modifications as may be necessary.

第6條。終止。本公告將於2020年12月31日到期,必要時可繼續執行。在本公告生效之日起30天內,以及本公告生效期間此後每隔60天,國土安全部部長應與國務卿和勞工部部長協商,建議任何必要的修改。

Sec. 7. Effective Date. Except as provided in section 1 of this proclamation, this proclamation is effective at 12:01 a.m. eastern daylight time on June 24, 2020.

第7條。生效日期。除本公告第1條規定外,本公告於2020年6月24日東部夏令時間上午12:01生效。

Sec. 8.  Severability.  It is the policy of the United States to enforce this proclamation to the maximum extent possible to advance the interests of the United States.  Accordingly:

第8條。可分割性。美國的政策是盡最大可能執行本公告,以促進美國的利益。因此:

(a) if any provision of this proclamation, or the application of any provision to any person or circumstance, is held to be invalid, the remainder of this proclamation and the application of its provisions to any other persons or circumstances shall not be affected thereby ; and

(a) 如果本公告的任何條款,或任何條款對任何人或情況的適用被認定為無效,則本公告的其餘部分及其條款對任何其他人或情況的適用不受影響;以及

(b) if any provision of this proclamation, or the application of any provision to any person or circumstance, is held to be invalid because of the lack of certain procedural requirements, the relevant executive branch officials shall implement those procedural requirements to conform with existing law and with any applicable court orders.

(b) 如果本公告的任何條款或任何條款對任何人或情況的適用因缺乏某些程序要求而被認為無效,有關行政部門官員應執行這些程序要求,以符合現行法律和任何適用的法院命令;

Sec. 9. General Provisions. (a) Nothing in this proclamation shall be construed to impair or otherwise affect:

第9條。總則。 (a) 本公告的任何內容均不得解釋為損害或以其他方式影響:

(i) the authority granted by law to an executive department or agency, or the head thereof; or

(i) 法律授予行政部門或機構或其負責人的權力;或

(ii) the functions of the Director of the Office of Management and Budget relating to budgetary, administrative, or legislative proposals.

(ii) 管理和預算辦公室主任在預算、行政或立法提案方面的職能;

(b) This proclamation shall be implemented consistent with applicable law and subject to the availability of appropriations.

(b) 本公告的執行應符合適用的法律,並有撥款的情況下執行。

(c) This proclamation is not intended to, and does not, create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or in equity by any party against the United States, its departments, agencies, or entities, its officers, employees , or agents, or any other person.

(c) 本公告無意,也不會創造任何權利或利益,無論是任何實體上或程序上的任何權利或利益。任何一方均可在法律上或衡平法上對美國、其部門、機構或實體、其官員、僱員或代理人或任何其他人強制執行。

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this twenty-second day of June, in the year of our Lord two thousand twenty, and of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and forty-fourth.

DONALD J. TRUMP

我於西元2020年,即美利堅合眾國獨立後的第244年的6月22日在此簽字,以昭信守。

唐納德·川普

白宮原文:Proclamation Suspending Entry of Aliens Who Present a Risk to the U.S. Labor Market Following the Coronavirus Outbreak

翻譯:【Ying202064】校對:【班仔】

戰友之家玫瑰園小隊出品

相關新聞:重建經濟輝煌時川普總統將把美國工人放在首位

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Isaiah4031

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