關於維護美國在北極和南極地區國家利益的備忘錄

Memorandum on Safeguarding U.S. National Interests in the Arctic and Antarctic Regions

關於維護美國在北極和南極地區國家利益的備忘錄

NATIONAL SECURITY & DEFENSE | Issued on: June 9, 2020

國家安全和防衛部門 | 發佈時間:2020年6月9日

MEMORANDUM FOR
THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE
THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE
THE SECRETARY OF ENERGY
THE SECRETARY OF HOMELAND SECURITY
THE DIRECTOR OF THE OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET
THE ASSISTANT TO THE PRESIDENT FOR NATIONAL SECURITY AFFAIRS
國務卿
國防部長
商務部長
能源部長
國土安全部部長
管理和預算辦公室主任
總統國家安全事務助理
備忘錄

SUBJECT:    Safeguarding U.S. National Interests in the Arctic and Antarctic Regions

主題:維護美國在北極和南極地區的國家利益

To help protect our national interests in the Arctic and Antarctic regions, and to retain a strong Arctic security presence alongside our allies and partners, the United States requires a ready, capable, and available fleet of polar security icebreakers that is operationally tested and fully deployable by Fiscal Year 2029.  Accordingly, by the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, I hereby direct the following:

為了説明保護我們在北極和南極地區的國家利益,並與我們的盟友和夥伴一道保持強大的北極安全存在,美國需要一支隨時準備好的、有能力的、可用的極地安全破冰船隊,這支船隊要經過作戰測試,並在2029財政年度之前可以全面部署。 因此,根據《美利堅合眾國憲法》和法律賦予我作為總統的權力,我在此作出以下指示。

Section 1.  Fleet Acquisition Program.  The United States will develop and execute a polar security icebreaking fleet acquisition program that supports our national interests in the Arctic and Antarctic regions.

第一節:  艦隊採購計畫。 美國將制定並執行極地安全破冰船隊採購計畫,支持我國在北極和南極地區的國家利益。

(a)  The Secretary of Homeland Security, in coordination with the Secretary of State, the Secretary of Defense, the Secretary of Commerce, and the Director of the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), shall lead a review of requirements for a polar security icebreaking fleet acquisition program to acquire and employ a suitable fleet of polar security icebreakers, and associated assets and resources, capable of ensuring a persistent United States presence in the Arctic and Antarctic regions in support of national interests and in furtherance of the National Security Strategy and the National Defense Strategy, as appropriate.  Separately, the review shall include the ability to provide a persistent United States presence in the Antarctic region, as appropriate, in accordance with the Antarctic Treaty System.  The Secretary of Homeland Security and the Director of OMB, in executing this direction, shall ensure that the United States Coast Guard’s (USCG) Offshore Patrol Cutter acquisition program is not adversely impacted.

(a)國土安全部部長應與國務卿、國防部長、商務部長以及管理和預算辦公室(OMB)主任協調,牽頭審查極地安全破冰船隊購置計畫的要求,以購置和使用一支合適的極地安全破冰船隊,以及相關資產和資源,能夠確保美國在北極和南極地區的持續存在,以支持國家利益,並酌情推進國家安全戰略和國防戰略。另外,審查應包括根據《南極條約》體系,酌情在南極地區提供美國持續存在的能力。 國土安全部部長和OMB主任在執行這一指示時,應確保美國海岸警衛隊(USCG)的近海巡邏艇採購計畫不受不利影響。

(b)  The Secretary of Homeland Security, acting through the Commandant of the Coast Guard, in coordination with the Secretary of Defense, acting through the Secretary of the Navy, and the Secretary of Energy, as appropriate, shall conduct a study of the comparative operational and fiscal benefits and risks of a polar security icebreaking fleet mix that consists of at least three heavy polar-class security cutters (PSC) that are appropriately outfitted to meet the objectives of this memorandum.  This study shall be submitted to the President, through the Director of OMB and the Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs, within 60 days from the date of this memorandum and at a minimum shall include:

(b)國土安全部部長應通過海岸警衛隊司令官,酌情與國防部長(通過海軍部長)和能源部長協調,對極地安全破冰船隊組合的比較作戰和財政效益及風險進行研究,該船隊至少由3艘重型極地級安全切割器(PSC)組成,並適當配備以實現本備忘錄的目標。 該研究報告應在本備忘錄發佈之日起60天內,通過監察員辦公室主任和總統國家安全事務助理提交給總統,至少應包括以下內容。

(i)    Use cases in the Arctic that span the full range of national and economic security missions (including the facilitation of resource exploration and exploitation and undersea cable laying and maintenance) that may be executed by a class of medium PSCs, as well as analysis of how these use cases differ with respect to the anticipated use of heavy PSCs for these same activities.  These use cases shall identify the optimal number and type of polar security icebreakers for ensuring a persistent presence in both the Arctic and, as appropriate, the Antarctic regions;

(i)在北極的使用案例,涵蓋一類中型私營保安公司可能執行的所有國家和經濟安全任務(包括促進資源勘探和開發以及鋪設和維護海底電纜),並分析這些使用案例與重型私營保安公司在這些活動中的預期使用有何不同。 這些用例應確定極地安全破冰船的最佳數量和類型,以確保在北極地區並酌情在南極地區持續存在。

(ii)   An assessment of expanded operational capabilities, with estimated associated costs, for both heavy and medium PSCs not yet contracted for, specifically including the maximum use of any such PSC with respect to its ability to support national security objectives through the use of the following:  unmanned aviation, surface, and undersea systems; space systems; sensors and other systems to achieve and maintain maritime domain awareness; command and control systems; secure communications and data transfer systems; and intelligence-collection systems.  This assessment shall also evaluate defensive armament adequate to defend against threats by near-peer competitors and the potential for nuclear-powered propulsion;

(ii)對尚未簽訂合同的重型和中型極地安全艦的擴大作戰能力進行評估,並估算相關費用,特別是包括最大限度地利用任何此類極地安全艦支援國家安全目標的能力,包括使用以下系統:無人航空、水面和海底系統;空間系統;感測器和其他系統,以實現和保持對海洋領域的認識;指揮和控制系統;安全通信和資料傳輸系統; 以及情報收集系統。 這項評估還將評價足以抵禦近鄰競爭者威脅的防禦性軍備以及核動力推進的潛力。

(iii)  Based on the determined fleet size and composition, an identification and assessment of at least two optimal United States basing locations and at least two international basing locations.  The basing location assessment shall include the costs, benefits, risks, and challenges related to infrastructure, crewing, and logistics and maintenance support for PSCs at these locations.  In addition, this assessment shall account for potential burden-sharing opportunities for basing with the Department of Defense and allies and partners, as appropriate; and

(iii)根據已確定的船隊規模和組成,確定和評估至少兩個美國最佳停靠地點和至少兩個國際停靠地點。 基地評估應包括與這些地點的私營保安公司的基礎設施、船員、後勤和維護支持有關的成本、效益、風險和挑戰。 此外,這一評估應酌情考慮到與國防部、盟國和合作夥伴分擔基地建設負擔的潛在機會;以及

(iv)   In anticipation of the USCGC POLAR STAR’s operational degradation from Fiscal Years 2022-2029, an analysis to identify executable options, with associated costs, to bridge the gap of available vessels as early as Fiscal Year 2022 until the new PSCs required to meet the objectives of this memorandum are operational, including identifying executable, priced leasing options, both foreign and domestic.  This analysis shall specifically include operational risk associated with using a leased vessel as compared to a purchased vessel to conduct specified missions set forth in this memorandum.

(iv)由於預計2022-2029財政年度美國海軍陸戰隊極地星號(POLAR STAR)的作戰能力將下降,因此應進行分析,確定可執行的備選方案和相關費用,以儘早在2022財政年度彌補現有船隻的缺口,直至實現本備忘錄目標所需的新PSC投入使用,包括確定可執行的、有價格的外國和國內租賃方案。 這一分析應特別包括與使用租賃船隻和購買船隻執行本備忘錄規定的特定任務相比,與使用租賃船隻有關的業務風險。

(c)  In the interest of securing a fully capable polar security icebreaking fleet that is capable of providing a persistent presence in the Arctic and Antarctic regions at the lowest possible cost, the Secretary of State shall coordinate with the Secretary of Homeland Security in identifying viable polar security icebreaker leasing options, provided by partner nations, as a near- to mid-term (Fiscal Years 2022-2029) bridging strategy to mitigate future operational degradation of the USCGC POLAR STAR.  Leasing options shall contemplate capabilities that allow for access to the Arctic and Antarctic regions to, as appropriate, conduct national and economic security missions, in addition to marine scientific research in the Arctic, and conduct research in Antarctica in accordance with the Antarctic Treaty System.  Further, and in advance of any bid solicitation for future polar security icebreaker acquisitions, the Secretary of State shall coordinate with the Secretary of Homeland Security to identify partner nations with proven foreign shipbuilding capability and expertise in icebreaker construction.

(c) 為了確保建立一支有充分能力的極地安全破冰船隊,能夠以盡可能低的成本在北極和南極地區持續存在,國務卿應與國土安全部部長協調,確定由夥伴國家提供的可行的極地安全破冰船租賃方案,作為近期至中期(2022-2029 財政年度)的銜接戰略,以緩解美國海軍陸戰隊極地星號未來的作戰能力下降。 租賃方案應考慮允許進入北極和南極地區的能力,除了在北極進行海洋科學研究外,還可酌情執行國家和經濟安全任務,並根據《南極條約》體系在南極進行研究。 此外,在未來極地安全破冰船採購的任何招標之前,國務卿應與國土安全部部長協調,以確定具有成熟的外國造船能力和破冰船建造專長的夥伴國家。

(d)  The Secretary of Defense shall coordinate with the Secretary of State and the Secretary of Homeland Security to continue to provide technical and programmatic support to the USCG integrated program office for the acquisition, outfitting, and operations of all classes of PSCs.

(d)國防部長應與國務卿和國土安全部部長協調,繼續為USCG綜合項目辦公室提供所有級別PSC的採購、舾裝和運營方面的技術和方案支持。

Sec. 2.  General Provisions.  (a)  Nothing in this memorandum shall be construed to impair or otherwise affect:

第2節。 總則。 (a) 本備忘錄的任何內容均不得解釋為損害或以其他方式影響:

 the authority granted by law to an executive department or agency, or the head thereof; or(ii)  the functions of the Director of OMB relating to budgetary, administrative, or legislative proposals.

(i) 法律(i)  賦予行政部門或機構或其負責人的權力;或  (ii) 監察員辦公室主任在預算、行政或立法建議方面的職能。

(b)  This memorandum shall be implemented consistent with applicable law and subject to the availability of appropriations.

(b) 本備忘錄的執行應符合適用的法律,並視撥款情況而定。

(c)  This memorandum is not intended to, and does not, create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or in equity by any party against the United States, its departments, agencies, or entities, its officers, employees, or agents, or any other person.

(c) 本備忘錄無意也不會產生任何一方可在法律上或衡平法上對美國、其各部門、 機構或實體、其官員、雇員或代理人或任何其他人強制執行的任何實質性或程式性的權利或利益。

DONALD J. TRUMP

唐納德. J. 川普

出處:Memorandum on Safeguarding U.S. National Interests in the Arctic and Antarctic Regions

翻譯:【班】 校對:【Melody太陽的旋律】 【GM31】

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