川普总统签署行政令打击破坏雕塑的犯罪行为迅速见效

川普总统在6月26日签署行政令,公布对故意损害联邦财产的行为判处最高10年的监禁,已经初见成效。川普总统在28日的推文里透露在行政令公布之后,已经有多人因破坏公物和雕像而被拘捕,目前这种公然的破坏行为已经完全停止。

自从对破坏公物、雕像等的人判处了10年监禁后,全国各地都有人被拘捕,公然破坏行为已经完全停止。 谢谢你们!

Executive Order on Protecting American Monuments, Memorials, and Statues and Combating Recent Criminal Violence

 保护美国古迹,纪念馆和雕像以及打击近期刑事暴力的行政令

 LAW & JUSTICE

法律与司法

 Issued on: June 26, 2020

发行日期:2020年6月26日

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, it is hereby ordered as follows:

根据美国宪法和美利坚合众国法律赋予我的总统职权,现命令如下:

Section 1.  Purpose.  The first duty of government is to ensure domestic tranquility and defend the life, property, and rights of its citizens.  Over the last 5 weeks, there has been a sustained assault on the life and property of civilians, law enforcement officers, government property, and revered American monuments such as the Lincoln Memorial.  Many of the rioters, arsonists, and left-wing extremists who have carried out and supported these acts have explicitly identified themselves with ideologies — such as Marxism — that call for the destruction of the United States system of government.

第1节   目的。政府的首要职责是确保家庭安宁,捍卫其公民的生命、财产和权利。在过去的5周中,对平民、执法人员、政府财产和受人尊敬的美国古迹如林肯纪念堂的生命和财产进行了持续的袭击。许多实施和支持这些行为的暴乱者、纵火主义者和左翼极端主义者已经明确地表明了自己的意识形态,诸如马克思主义,要求破坏美国政府系统。

Anarchists and left-wing extremists have sought to advance a fringe ideology that paints the United States of America as fundamentally unjust and have sought to impose that ideology on Americans through violence and mob intimidation.  They have led riots in the streets, burned police vehicles, killed and assaulted government officers as well as business owners defending their property, and even seized an area within one city where law and order gave way to anarchy.  During the unrest, innocent citizens also have been harmed and killed.

无政府主义者和左翼极端主义者试图发展一种边缘主义意识形态,将美利坚合众国描述为一个从根本上是不公正的国家,并试图通过暴力和暴民恐吓将这种意识形态强加给美国人民。他们制造街头骚乱、烧毁警车、杀死和殴打政府官员以及捍卫自己财产的企业主,甚至在一个城市内占领了一个地区,使法律与秩序让位与无政府状态。在动乱期间,无辜公民也受到伤害和杀害。

These criminal acts are frequently planned and supported by agitators who have traveled across State lines to promote their own violent agenda.  These radicals shamelessly attack the legitimacy of our institutions and the very rule of law itself.

这些犯罪行为通常是被跨州宣传自己的暴力议程的煽动者们计划和支持的。 这些激进分子无耻地攻击了我们机构的合法性和法治本身。

Key targets in the violent extremists’ campaign against our country are public monuments, memorials, and statues.  Their selection of targets reveals a deep ignorance of our history, and is indicative of a desire to indiscriminately destroy anything that honors our past and to erase from the public mind any suggestion that our past may be worth honoring, cherishing, remembering, or understanding.  In the last week, vandals toppled a statue of President Ulysses S. Grant in San Francisco.  To them, it made no difference that President Grant led the Union Army to victory over the Confederacy in the Civil War, enforced Reconstruction, fought the Ku Klux Klan, and advocated for the Fifteenth Amendment, which guaranteed freed slaves the right to vote.  In Charlotte, North Carolina, the names of 507 veterans memorialized on a World War II monument were painted over with a symbol of communism.  And earlier this month, in Boston, a memorial commemorating an African-American regiment that fought in the Civil War was defaced with graffiti.  In Madison, Wisconsin, rioters knocked over the statue of an abolitionist immigrant who fought for the Union during the Civil War.  Christian figures are now in the crosshairs, too.  Recently, an influential activist for one movement that has been prominent in setting the agenda for demonstrations in recent weeks declared that many existing religious depictions of Jesus and the Holy Family should be purged from our places of worship.

暴力极端分子的运动主要针对我们国家的公共纪念碑,纪念馆和雕像。他们选择的目标暴露了对我们历史的极度无知,也表明他们想要不加区别地摧毁任何纪念我们过去的东西,并从公众脑海中抹去任何我们过去值得纪念、珍惜、铭记或理解的东西。上周,破坏者在旧金山推倒了总统尤利西斯·s·格兰特(Ulysses S. Grant)的雕像。对他们来说,无异于格兰特总统领导的北方军在内战中战胜了南部邦联,实施重建、与三k党作战,并倡导保证解放奴隶投票权的第十五修正案,这些都没有影响。在北卡罗来纳州的夏洛特市,一座二战纪念碑上纪念的507名退伍军人的名字被涂上了共产主义的象征。本月早些时候,在波士顿,一个纪念在内战中战斗的非裔美国人军团的纪念碑被涂鸦破坏。在威斯康辛州的麦迪逊,骚乱者推倒了一位在内战期间为联邦而战的废奴主义移民的雕像。基督教人物现在也成了靶子。最近,一位颇有影响力的活动人士宣布,许多现存的对耶稣和神圣家庭的宗教描述应该从我们的敬拜场所清除。该运动最近几周在为示威活动设定议程方面一直很突出。

Individuals and organizations have the right to peacefully advocate for either the removal or the construction of any monument.  But no individual or group has the right to damage, deface, or remove any monument by use of force.

个人和组织有权和平倡导拆除或建造任何古迹。但是任何个人或团体均无权使用武力破坏、污损或拆除任何纪念碑。

In the midst of these attacks, many State and local governments appear to have lost the ability to distinguish between the lawful exercise of rights to free speech and assembly and unvarnished vandalism.  They have surrendered to mob rule, imperiling community safety, allowing for the wholesale violation of our laws, and privileging the violent impulses of the mob over the rights of law-abiding citizens.  Worse, they apparently have lost the will or the desire to stand up to the radical fringe and defend the fundamental truth that America is good, her people are virtuous, and that justice prevails in this country to a far greater extent than anywhere else in the world.  Some particularly misguided public officials even appear to have accepted the idea that violence can be virtuous and have prevented their police from enforcing the law and protecting public monuments, memorials, and statues from the mob’s ropes and graffiti.

在这些袭击中,许多州和地方政府似乎已经失去了辨别合法行使言论自由和集会权与不加破坏性破坏的能力。他们屈服于暴民统治、危及社区安全、允许全面违反我们的法律,并使暴民对守法公民的权利施加暴力。更糟糕的是,他们显然已经丧失了站在极端边缘并捍卫美国美好,人民道德高尚和正义在这个国家盛行的根本真理的意愿的程度比世界上任何地方都要严重得多。一些受到特别误导的公职人员甚至似乎已经接受了暴力可能是品德高尚的谬论,而且阻止了警察执行法律来保护公共纪念碑、纪念馆和雕像免受暴民的绳索和涂鸦侵害的行为。

My Administration will not allow violent mobs incited by a radical fringe to become the arbiters of the aspects of our history that can be celebrated in public spaces.  State and local public officials’ abdication of their law enforcement responsibilities in deference to this violent assault must end.

我的政府将不会允许被暴力煽动的激进暴民充当我们可在公共场所庆祝的历史各个方面的仲裁者。州和地方公职人员放弃其执法职责而保护这种暴力行为的情况必须终止。

Sec. 2.  Policy. 

第2节   政策。

(a)  It is the policy of the United States to prosecute to the fullest extent permitted under Federal law, and as appropriate, any person or any entity that destroys, damages, vandalizes, or desecrates a monument, memorial, or statue within the United States or otherwise vandalizes government property. The desire of the Congress to protect Federal property is clearly reflected in section 1361 of title 18, United States Code, which authorizes a penalty of up to 10 years’ imprisonment for the willful injury of Federal property.  More recently, under the Veterans’ Memorial Preservation and Recognition Act of 2003, section 1369 of title 18, United States Code, the Congress punished with the same penalties the destruction of Federal and in some cases State-maintained monuments that honor military veterans. Other criminal statutes, such as the Travel Act, section 1952 of title 18, United States Code, permit prosecutions of arson damaging monuments, memorials, and statues on State grounds in some cases. Civil statutes like the Public System Resource Protection Act, section 100722 of title 54, United States Code, also hold those who destroy certain Federal property accountable for their offenses. The Federal Government will not tolerate violations of these and other laws.

(a) 美国的政策是在联邦法律允许的最大范围内,酌情对在美国境内破坏、损害、肆意毁坏或亵渎纪念碑、纪念馆或雕像,或以其他方式破坏政府财产的任何个人或实体进行起诉。国会保护联邦财产的意愿明确反映在《美国法典》第18篇第1361节中,授权对故意损害联邦财产的行为判处最高10年的监禁。最近,根据《2003年退伍军人纪念保护和认可法案》和《美国法典》第18篇第1369节,国会以同样的刑罚惩处破坏联邦以及某些情况下由国家维护的纪念退伍军人的纪念碑。其他刑法,例如《旅行法案》和《美国法典》第18篇第1952节,允许在某些情况下以国家之名对破坏纪念碑、纪念馆和雕像的纵火行为进行起诉。民事法规,如《公共系统资源保护法》和《美国法典》第54篇第100722节,同样规定破坏某些联邦财产的人应对其犯罪行为负责。联邦政府不会容忍违反这些法律和其他法律的行为。

(b)  It is the policy of the United States to prosecute to the fullest extent permitted under Federal law, and as appropriate, any person or any entity that participates in efforts to incite violence or other illegal activity in connection with the riots and acts of vandalism described in section 1 of this order. Numerous Federal laws, including section 2101 of title 18, United States Code, prohibit the violence that has typified the past few weeks in some cities. Other statutes punish those who participate in or assist the agitators who have coordinated these lawless acts.  Such laws include section 371 of title 18, United States Code, which criminalizes certain conspiracies to violate Federal law, section 2 of title 18, United States Code, which punishes those who aid or abet the commission of Federal crimes, and section 2339A of title 18, United States Code, which prohibits as material support to terrorism efforts to support a defined set of Federal crimes. Those who have joined in recent violent acts around the United States will be held accountable.

(b) 美国的政策是在联邦法律允许的最大范围内,酌情对参与本行政令第1节中描述的暴动和破坏行为有关的煽动暴力和其他非法活动的任何个人或实体进行起诉。大量联邦法律,包括《美国法典》第18篇第2101节,都禁止过去几周发生在一些城市的典型暴力事件。其他法规也惩那些罚参与或协助这些违法行为的煽动者。这些法律包括《美国法典》第18篇第371节,规定某些密谋违反联邦法律定为刑事犯罪;《美国法典》第18篇第2节,对协助或教唆实施联邦犯罪的人进行处罚,以及《美国法典》第18篇第2339A节,禁止对认定的一系列的联邦罪行进行支持,支持内容与恐怖主义行为的实质性支持相同。近期美国各地暴力活动的参与者将被追究责任。

(c)  It is the policy of the United States to prosecute to the fullest extent permitted under Federal law, and as appropriate, any person or any entity that damages, defaces, or destroys religious property, including by attacking, removing, or defacing depictions of Jesus or other religious figures or religious art work.  Federal laws prohibit, under certain circumstances, damage or defacement of religious property, including the Church Arson Prevention Act of 1996, section 247 of title 18, United States Code, and section 371 of title 18, United States Code. The Federal Government will not tolerate violations of these laws designed to protect the free exercise of religion.

(c) 美国的政策是在联邦法律允许的最大范围内,酌情对参与损害、污损或破坏宗教财产的任何个人或任何实体进行起诉,包括对耶稣或其他宗教人物或宗教艺术品的攻击、拆除或污损描绘等行为。联邦法律在某些情况下禁止破坏或损毁宗教财产,包括1996年的《防止教堂纵火法案》,《美国法典》第18篇第247节和《美国法典》第18篇第371节。联邦政府将不会容忍违反旨在保护宗教自由的法律的行为。

(d)  It is the policy of the United States, as appropriate and consistent with applicable law, to withhold Federal support tied to public spaces from State and local governments that have failed to protect public monuments, memorials, and statues from destruction or vandalism.  These jurisdictions’ recent abandonment of their law enforcement responsibilities with respect to public monuments, memorials, and statues casts doubt on their willingness to protect other public spaces and maintain the peace within them.  These jurisdictions are not appropriate candidates for limited Federal funds that support public spaces.

(d) 美国的政策是酌情并遵循适用法律,对未能保护公共纪念碑、纪念馆和雕像免遭破坏或损毁的州和地方政府,停止与公共场所相关的联邦支持。这些司法管辖区最近放弃了对公共纪念碑、纪念馆和雕像的执法职责,他们保护其他公共场所并维护其和平的意愿受到怀疑。这些司法管辖区不是有限的用来支持公共场所的联邦基金的合适候选人。

(e)  It is the policy of the United States, as appropriate and consistent with applicable law, to withhold Federal support from State and local law enforcement agencies that have failed to protect public monuments, memorials, and statues from destruction or vandalism. Unwillingness to enforce State and local laws in the face of attacks on our history, whether because of sympathy for the extremists behind this violence or some other improper reason, casts doubt on the management of these law enforcement agencies. These law enforcement agencies are not appropriate candidates for limited Federal funds that support State and local police.

(e) 美国的政策是酌情并遵循适用法律,对未能保护公共纪念碑、纪念馆和雕像免遭破坏或损毁的州和地方的执法机构,停止与公共场所相关的联邦支持。不愿执行国家和地方法律面对对我们历史的攻击,无论是出于对暴力背后的极端分子的同情还是其他不正当的理由,都使这些执法机构的管理受到质疑。这些执法机构不是有限的用来支持州和当地警察的联邦基金的合适候选人。

Sec. 3.  Enforcing Laws Prohibiting the Desecration of Public Monuments, the Vandalism of Government Property, and Recent Acts of Violence. 

第3节   执行禁止亵渎公共纪念物、破坏政府财产和近期暴力行为的法律。

(a)  The Attorney General shall prioritize within the Department of Justice the investigation and prosecution of matters described in subsections 2(a), (b), and (c) of this order.  The Attorney General shall take all appropriate enforcement action against individuals and organizations found to have violated Federal law through these investigations.

 (a) 总检察长应在司法部内优先调查和起诉本命令第 2(a)、(b)和(c)分节所述事项。 总检察长应对通过这些调查发现违反联邦法律的个人和组织采取一切适当的执法行动。

(b)  The Attorney General shall, as appropriate and consistent with applicable law, work with State and local law enforcement authorities and Federal agencies to ensure the Federal Government appropriately provides information and assistance to State and local law enforcement authorities in connection with their investigations or prosecutions for the desecration of monuments, memorials, and statues, regardless of whether such structures are situated on Federal property.

(b) 总检察长应酌情并在符合适用法律的情况下,与州和地方执法当局及联邦机构合作,确保联邦政府在州和地方执法当局对亵渎纪念碑、纪念馆和雕像进行调查或起诉时,向其提供适当的信息和协助,无论这些建筑物是否位于联邦财产之上;

Sec. 4.  Limiting Federal Grants for Jurisdictions and Law Enforcement Agencies that Permit the Desecration of Monuments, Memorials, or Statues.  The heads of all executive departments and agencies shall examine their respective grant programs and apply the policies established by sections 2(d) and (e) of this order to all such programs to the extent that such application is both appropriate and consistent with applicable law.

第4节   限制对允许亵渎纪念碑、纪念馆或雕像的管辖区和执法机构的联邦赠款。 限制向允许亵渎纪念碑、纪念馆或雕像的管辖区和执法机构提供联邦赠款。 所有行政部门和机构的负责人应审查各自的赠款方案,并将本命令第2(d)和(e)节规定的政策适用于所有此类方案,只要这种适用是适当的,符合适用的法律。

Sec. 5.  Providing Assistance for the Protection of Federal Monuments, Memorials, Statues, and Property.  Upon the request of the Secretary of the Interior, the Secretary of Homeland Security, or the Administrator of General Services, the Secretary of Defense, the Attorney General, and the Secretary of Homeland Security shall provide, as appropriate and consistent with applicable law, personnel to assist with the protection of Federal monuments, memorials, statues, or property.  This section shall terminate 6 months from the date of this order unless extended by the President.

第5节 为保护联邦纪念碑、纪念馆、雕像和财产提供援助。 应内政部长、国土安全部部长或总务署长的要求,国防部长、司法部长和国土安全部部长应根据适用法律酌情提供人员协助保护联邦纪念碑、纪念馆、雕像或财产。 本节自本命令发布之日起6个月后终止,除非总统延长本节有效期。

Sec. 6.  General Provisions.  (a)  Nothing in this order shall be construed to impair or otherwise affect:

第6节 一般规定。 (a) 本命令的任何内容均不得解释为损害或以其他方式影响:

(i)   the authority granted by law to an executive department or agency, or the head thereof; or  法律授予行政部门或机构或其负责人的权力; 或

(ii)  the functions of the Director of the Office of Management and Budget relating to budgetary, administrative, or legislative proposals. 管理和预算办公室主任与预算、行政或立法提案有关的职能。

(b)  This order shall be implemented consistent with applicable law and subject to the availability of appropriations. 本命令的执行应符合适用的法律,并应视拨款情况而定。

(c)  This order is not intended to, and does not, create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or in equity by any party against the United States, its departments, agencies, or entities, its officers, employees, or agents, or any other person. 本命令无意,也不会产生任何一方可在法律上或衡平法上对美国、其各部门、机构或实体、其官员、雇员或代理人或任何其他人强制执行的任何实质性或程序性权利或利益。

(d)  This order is not intended to, and does not, affect the prosecutorial discretion of the Department of Justice with respect to individual cases. 这项命令的目的不是,也不会影响司法部对个别案件的起诉裁量权。

白宮原文鏈接:https://www.whitehouse.gov/presidential-actions/executive-order-protecting-american-monuments-memorials-statues-combating-recent-criminal-violence/

白宫Twitter:https://twitter.com/realDonaldTrump/status/1277212069868318720

翻译:【小粉紅 】【Connor54 】【Naomi】 校对: 【Winston Jackson】

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