川普总统促进国际宗教自由的行政命令(中英文对照全文)

Executive Order on Advancing International Religious Freedom

Issued on: June 2, 2020

关于促进国际宗教自由的行政命令

颁布日期:2020年6月2日

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, it is hereby ordered as follows:

根据美国宪法和美利坚合众国法律赋予我的总统职权,现命令如下:

Section 1.  Policy.  

第1节 政策

(a)  Religious freedom, America’s first freedom, is a moral and national security imperative.  Religious freedom for all people worldwide is a foreign policy priority of the United States, and the United States will respect and vigorously promote this freedom.  As stated in the 2017 National Security Strategy, our Founders understood religious freedom not as a creation of the state, but as a gift of God to every person and a right that is fundamental for the flourishing of our society.

(a) 宗教自由是美国的第一大自由,是道义和国家安全的当务之急。全世界所有人的宗教自由是美国的外交政策的优先事项,美国将尊重并大力促进这一自由。正如《 2017年国家安全战略》中所述,美国的开国者们认为,宗教自由不是国家的产物,而是上帝赐给每个人的礼物,并且是对我们社会蓬勃发展至关重要的一项权利。

(b) Religious communities and organizations, and other institutions of civil society, are vital partners in United States Government efforts to advance religious freedom around the world.  It is the policy of the United States to engage robustly and continually with civil society organizations — including those in foreign countries — to inform United States Government policies, programs, and activities related to international religious freedom.

(b) 宗教社区和组织以及其它的民间社会机构,是美国政府为促进全世界宗教自由所做的努力的重要伙伴。美国的政策是与民间社会组织(包括在国外的民间社会组织)进行有力和持续的接触,以帮助美国政府制定与国际宗教自由有关的政策、计划和活动。

Sec. 2.  Prioritization of International Religious Freedom.  Within 180 days of the date of this order, the Secretary of State (Secretary) shall, in consultation with the Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), develop a plan to prioritize international religious freedom in the planning and implementation of United States foreign policy and in the foreign assistance programs of the Department of State and USAID.

第2节 优先考虑国际宗教自由

在下达此命令之日起的180天内,国务卿应与美国国际开发署(USAID)署长协商,在规划和执行美国外交政策和在国务院和美国国际开发署的对外援助计划中,制定优先考虑国际宗教自由的计划。

Sec. 3.  Foreign Assistance Funding for International Religious Freedom.  

(a) The Secretary shall, in consultation with the Administrator of USAID, budget at least $50 million per fiscal year for programs that advance international religious freedom, to the extent feasible and permitted by law and subject to the availability of appropriations.  Such programs shall include those intended to anticipate, prevent, and respond to attacks against individuals and groups on the basis of their religion, including programs designed to help ensure that such groups can persevere as distinct communities; to promote accountability for the perpetrators of such attacks; to ensure equal rights and legal protections for individuals and groups regardless of belief; to improve the safety and security of houses of worship and public spaces for all faiths; and to protect and preserve the cultural heritages of religious communities.

第3节 国际宗教自由的对外援助资金 

(a) 国务卿应在与美国国际开发署署长协商后,在法律允许和可行的范围内,并在可获拨款的前提下,每财政年度为促进国际宗教自由的方案设立至少5,000万美元的预算。此类项目应包括那些旨在预测、预防和回应对个人和团体的宗教信仰袭击的计划,包括旨在确保此类群体能够作为独特的群体长期存续的项目;促进对此类袭击的肇事者追责;确保无论何种信仰的个人和团体都享有平等的权利和法律保护;改善所有宗教敬拜场所和公共场所的安全保障;并保护和保存宗教社区的文化遗产。

(b)  Executive departments and agencies (agencies) that fund foreign assistance programs shall ensure that faith-based and religious entities, including eligible entities in foreign countries, are not discriminated against on the basis of religious identity or religious belief when competing for Federal funding, to the extent permitted by law.

(b) 为外国援助计划提供资金的执行部门和机构(机构),应确保在信仰和宗教实体,包括外国的合格实体 ,在法律允许的范围内争取联邦资金时,不会因宗教身份或宗教信仰遭受歧视。

Sec. 4.  Integrating International Religious Freedom into United States Diplomacy.  

(a)  The Secretary shall direct Chiefs of Mission in countries of particular concern, countries on the Special Watch List, countries in which there are entities of particular concern, and any other countries that have engaged in or tolerated violations of religious freedom as noted in the Annual Report on International Religious Freedom required by section 102(b) of the International Religious Freedom Act of 1998 (Public Law 105-292), as amended (the “Act”), to develop comprehensive action plans to inform and support the efforts of the United States to advance international religious freedom and to encourage the host governments to make progress in eliminating violations of religious freedom.

第4节 将国际宗教自由纳入美国外交

(a) 国务卿应指导驻扎在那些特别关注国、特别观察名单上的国家、存在特别关注实体的国家、以及根据修订版的1998年《国际宗教自由法》(公共法第105-292号)第102(b)条所规定的《国际宗教自由年度报告》中所提到的,侵犯或容忍侵犯宗教自由的任何其它国家的外交使团长官,制定全面的行动计划,以告知和支持美国促进国际宗教自由,并鼓励东道国政府在消除侵犯宗教自由方面取得进展。

(b)  In meetings with their counterparts in foreign governments, the heads of agencies shall, when appropriate and in coordination with the Secretary, raise concerns about international religious freedom and cases that involve individuals imprisoned because of their religion.

(b) 美国的机构负责人在与外国政府对口机构举行会议时,应酌情并在与国务卿的步调一致时,对国际宗教自由和涉及因宗教而被监禁的个人的案件表示关切。

(c)  The Secretary shall advocate for United States international religious freedom policy in both bilateral and multilateral fora, when appropriate, and shall direct the Administrator of USAID to do the same.

(c) 国务卿应在适当时,在双边和多边论坛上,倡导美国的国际宗教自由政策,并应指示美国国际开发署署长表明同样的立场。

Sec. 5.  Training for Federal Officials.  

第五节 联邦官员培训

(a)  The Secretary shall require all Department of State civil service employees in the Foreign Affairs Series to undertake training modeled on the international religious freedom training described in section 708(a) of the Foreign Service Act of 1980 (Public Law 96-465), as amended by section 103(a)(1) of the Frank R. Wolf International Religious Freedom Act (Public Law 114-281).

(a) 国务卿应要求所有国务院外事部门公务员系统的雇员接受以1980年《外交服务法》(公法第96-465号)第708(a)条所述的国际宗教自由培训为蓝本的培训, 该条款经弗兰克·R·沃尔夫国际宗教自由法(公共法第114-281号)第103(a)(1)条修正。

(b)  Within 90 days of the date of this order, the heads of all agencies that assign personnel to positions overseas shall submit plans to the President, through the Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs, detailing how their agencies will incorporate the type of training described in subsection (a) of this section into the training required before the start of overseas assignments for all personnel who are to be stationed abroad, or who will deploy and remain abroad, in one location for 30 days or more.

(b) 在命令发布之日起90天内,所有向海外派遣人员的机构的负责人应通过国家安全事务总统助理向总统提交计划,详细说明其机构将如何,对所有将要在一个地点停留30天或更长时间的外派人员,在开始执行海外任务或之前所需的培训中,加入本节(a)中所述的培训。

(c)  All Federal employees subject to these requirements shall be required to complete international religious freedom training not less frequently than once every 3 years.

(c) 所有必须遵守这些要求的联邦雇员完成国际宗教自由培训的频率不得少于每3年一次。 

Sec. 6.  Economic Tools. 

第六节 经济手段

 (a)  The Secretary and the Secretary of the Treasury shall, in consultation with the Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs, and through the process described in National Security Presidential Memorandum-4 of April 4, 2017 (Organization of the National Security Council, the Homeland Security Council, and Subcommittees), develop recommendations to prioritize the appropriate use of economic tools to advance international religious freedom in countries of particular concern, countries on the Special Watch List, countries in which there are entities of particular concern, and any other countries that have engaged in or tolerated violations of religious freedom as noted in the report required by section 102(b) of the Act.  These economic tools may include, as appropriate and to the extent permitted by law, increasing religious freedom programming, realigning foreign assistance to better reflect country circumstances, or restricting the issuance of visas under section 604(a) of the Act.

(a) 国务卿和财政部长应与国家安全事务总统助理协商,按照2017年4月4日的《国家安全总统备忘录》第4号(国家安全委员会组织,国土安全委员会和小组委员会)所规定的程序,提出建议,对名列特别观察名单上的特别关注国、 特别关注实体所在的国家、以及任何其它从事或容忍《国际宗教自由法》第102(b)条中指出的侵犯宗教自由的国家,优先考虑合理使用经济手段,以促进国际宗教自由。这些经济手段可酌情在法律允许的范围内,加强宗教自由计划,根据情况调整援助计划,或根据《国际宗教自由法》第604(a)条限制签证的发放。

(b)  The Secretary of the Treasury, in consultation with the Secretary of State, may consider imposing sanctions under Executive Order 13818 of December 20, 2017 (Blocking the Property of Persons Involved in Serious Human Rights Abuse or Corruption), which, among other things, implements the Global Magnitsky Human Rights Accountability Act (Public Law 114-328)

(b) 财政部长应与国务卿协商,考虑根据2017年12月20日第13818号行政命令(查封涉及严重侵犯人权或腐败的人的财产)实施制裁,其中包括 实施《马格尼茨基全球人权问责法》(公共法第114-328号)。

Sec. 7.  Definitions.  

For purposes of this order:

第七节 定义 

在此行政令中: 

(a)  “Country of particular concern” is defined as provided in section 402(b)(1)(A) of the Act;

(a) 根据《国际宗教自由法》第402(b)(1)(A)条定义“特别关注国”;

(b)  “Entity of particular concern” is defined as provided in section 301 of the Frank R. Wolf International Religious Freedom Act (Public Law 114-281);

(b) 根据《弗兰克·R·沃尔夫国际宗教自由法》(第114-281号公共法)第301条定义“特别关注实体”;

(c)  “Special Watch List” is defined as provided in sections 3(15) and 402(b)(1)(A)(iii) of the Act; and

(c) 根据《国际宗教自由法》第3(15) 和402(b)(1)(A)(iii) 条定义 “特别观察名单”; 

(d)  “Violations of religious freedom” is defined as provided in section 3(16) of the Act.

(d) 根据《国际宗教自由法》第3(16)条定义“违反宗教自由”。

Sec. 8.  General Provisions.  

第8 节 一般条款

(a) Nothing in this order shall be construed to impair or otherwise affect:

(a) 此行政令的任何内容均不得被用来损害或影响:

(i)  the authority granted by law to an executive department or agency, or the head thereof; or

(i) 法律授予行政部门或机构或其负责人的权力;或

(ii) the functions of the Director of the Office of Management and Budget relating to budgetary, administrative, or legislative proposals.

(ii) 管理和预算办公室主任与预算、行政或立法提案有关的职能。

(b) This order shall be implemented consistent with applicable law and subject to the availability of appropriations.

(b) 本命令的执行应符合适用的法律,并视有无拨款情况而定。

(c)  This order is not intended to, and does not, create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or in equity by any party against the United States, its departments, agencies, or entities, its officers, employees, or agents, or any other person.

(c) 本命令无意也不会产生任何实质性或程序性的权利或利益,任何一方可在法律或衡平法上对美国、其部门、机构或实体、其官员、雇员或代理人或任何其他人强制执行。

DONALD J. TRUMP

THE WHITE HOUSE,
June 2, 2020.

唐纳德·川普
白宫
2020年6月2日。

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